Saturday, March 14, 2020

Formal Introductions in Japanese

Formal Introductions in Japanese Japan is a country whose culture stresses ritual and formality.  Proper etiquette is expected in business, for example, and even  saying​ hello  has a set of strict rules.  Japanese culture is steeped in honorific traditions and hierarchies depending on a persons age, social status, and relation. Even husbands and wives use honorifics when speaking to each other. Learning how to make formal introductions in Japanese is vital if you plan to visit the country, do business there, or even take part in ceremonies such as weddings. Something as seemingly innocuous as  saying hello at a party  comes with a strict set of social rules. The tables below can help ease you through this process. Each table includes the transliteration of the introductory word or phrase on the left, with the word or words written in Japanese letters underneath. (Japanese letters are generally written in  hiragana, which is the more widely used portion of the Japanese kana, or syllabary, having characters that are cursive.) The English translation is on the right. Formal Introductions In Japanese, there are several levels of formality. The expression, nice to meet you, is spoken very differently depending on the social status of the recipient. Note that those of a higher social status requires a longer greeting. Greetings also become shorter as the formality decreases. The table below shows how to deliver this phrase in Japanese, depending on the level of formality and/or the status of the person you are greeting. Douzo yoroshiku onegaishimasu. Very formal expressionUsed to a higher Yoroshiku onegaishimasu. To a higher Douzo yoroshiku. To an equal Yoroshiku. To a lower Honorific O or Go As in English,  an  honorific  is a conventional word, title, or  grammatical  form that signals respect, politeness, or social deference. An honorific is also known as a  courtesy title  or an  address term. In Japanese,  the honorific o 㠁ŠÂ  or go 㠁” can be attached to the front of some nouns as a formal way of saying your. It is very polite.   o-kuni someone elses country o-namae someone elses name o-shigoto someone elses job go-senmon someone elses field of study There are some cases where o or go does not mean your. In these cases, the honorific o makes the word more polite. You might expect that tea, which is very important in Japan, would require an honorific o. But, even something as mundane as a toilet requires the honorific o as the table below illustrates. o-cha tea (Japanese tea) o-tearai toilet Addressing People The title san- meaning Mr., Mrs., or Miss- is used for both male and female names, followed by either the family name or the given name. It is a respectful title, so you cannot attach it your own name or to the name of one of your family members. For example, if a persons family name is  Yamada,  you would great him as  Yamada-san, which would be the equivalent of saying, Mr. Yamada. If a young, single womans name is Yoko, you would address her as  Yoko-san, which translates into English as Miss Yoko.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

The Effects of the Vietnam War on American Soldiers Essay

The Effects of the Vietnam War on American Soldiers - Essay Example The South Vietnamese forces along with the United State depended on the air force and fire power with which they conducted search and destroy operations. "The Vietnam War, like the other two world wars before it, was a conflict that defined war for a generation. Unlike those previous wars, it was not fought on a broad international battlefield but rather in a narrow stretch of land far distant from America. Moreover as our study shows, it left not a single overwhelming image, but conflicting visions and meanings over which we continue to fight, though less stridently than at the height of that bitterly divisive conflict" (Wouters and Laufer 316). The United States entered the war to avoid the takeover of South Vietnam by the communist. The strategy behind this support was called containment. U.S. Military advisors arrived in 1950. In the early 1960s the U.S. involvement grew and the early 1965 they deployed combat units. The involvement of the U.S. was the highest in 1968 during the Tet Offensive. Later U.S. forces withdrew under a policy called Vietnamization, as South Vietnamese troops were armed and trained. The fighting in Vietnam continued even after a peace treaty was signed by all parties involved in January 1973. The U.S. Congress passed the Case-Church Amendment in June 1973, responding to the anti-war movement. The Case-Church Amendment banned U.S. Military intervention. North Vietnam captured Saigon in April 1975. In 1976, North Vietnam and South Vietnam were reunified. The Vietnam War had a huge impact on the culture, foreign relations and politics of the United States. The American citizens were very upset over the government's justification for the war and the means of fighting used. The war encountered a large human cost, which included the loss of 58,159 U.S. soldiers. The Vietnam War did not only result in the loss of life of American soldiers. The war had lasting effects on the soldiers who were in Vietnam. The soldiers not only suffered physical pain and injuries, they also suffered many psychological disorders. The fact that their own country men had turned against them affected the soldiers psychologically and emotionally. "Going to war creates a gulf between the warrior and his fellow citizens who have not directly experienced warfare" (Wouter and Laufer 40). The effects on the psychic of the soldiers were devastating up to the extent that they also stared committing suicide due to depression. The soldiers also faced problems which had lasting effects, these included drug addiction and the effects of Agent Orange on the soldiers and their children. "With the Vietnam war came widespread drug use, anti-military activism, racial tensions and increasing crime, all of which debilitated the training and readiness of the U.S. forces" (Baker 64) . Soldiers faced extreme conditions like hunger, fatigue, diseases and the like. Due to the intense conditions the soldiers faced in Vietnam, war memories were not forgotten easily. This resulted in a psychological disorder called delayed stress syndrome, which is described as extreme stress or even disorder of the brain caused by shocking memories of the past. Studies show that almost 15 per cent of the 3.3 million Americans who were a part of the Vietnam War were diagnosed with delayed stress sy

Monday, February 10, 2020

The Catholic Church and Its Influence on Africans in Colonial Latin Essay

The Catholic Church and Its Influence on Africans in Colonial Latin America - Essay Example The Church used a number of ways for a number of ways for conveying its messages and maintaining the order which ranged from the content of the sermons to the establishment of institutions like the Inquisition. The Catholic Church was an influential and powerful institution in colonial Latin American society, but its teachings were not followed by all the members of the colonial Latin American society. Africans in Colonial Latin America As Landers pointed out that the Africans started living in Latin America about a century before they started living in the United States. In her book ‘Slaves, Subjects and Subversives’ she studied the African Diaspora in Latin America. The study includes the experiences of many types of African descents, most of them were slaves, but there were also free people. She also presented her views about Christianity which was purposefully and religiously used for enslaving oppressors.1 Out of about twelve million Africans only eleven million cou ld survive the trauma and horror of slavery of the Middle Passage and mostly worked as slaves in plantation. Their and their decedent’s experiences of plantation slavery are horrible realities of the Iberian colonies of Latin America. The Catholic Church played a key role in soothing their sufferings.2 The Role of the Catholic Church in Maintaining Social Order The entire population of the Colonial Latin America society was under the influence of the Catholic Church including Africans who were mostly slaves and the Church served as an institution aiming to maintain the social order in the society. The Catholic Church tried to ensure that the social order is not overturned by the Africans or the slaves. The sermons of the Catholic Church did not approve the extreme cruelty of the slave owners and often criticized them, but they didn’t say anything against the slavery. The sermons of Padre Antonio Vieira instructed African slaves to obey their masters irrespective of the extreme cruel treatment by them. The sermons also talked about the rewards in the heaven for their sufferings on the Earth and insisted to pay attention on peace of their souls neglecting their physical pains.3 These sermons meant to comfort African slaves so that the social order is not disturbed. The sermons of the Catholic Church also tried to minimize any possibility by the African slaves to rise up against their masters or to escape from their masters. The sermons aimed to divert the focus of the African slaves from their sufferings to the afterlife and their souls. The sermons emphasized on neglecting worldly pains for the peace of souls and afterlife and ensured that the slaves are loyal to their masters and masters are obeyed by them so that the social order is maintained. The Catholic Church also used the institution like the Inquisition to maintain the social order. The Inquisition was used for interrogating and bringing to trial those who don’t follow the teaching s of the Catholic Church and go against it. â€Å"The Inquisition investigated everything from not living up to the teachings of the Church, to practicing Judaism, to charges of sorcery†

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Agricultural Production in Ancient Civilizations Essay Example for Free

Agricultural Production in Ancient Civilizations Essay During the period of 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. ancient civilizations in North and South America and China cultivated and gradually moved from the hunting and gathering lifestyles. These civilizations drifted towards food collection and then farming. This approach, crops and attitudes toward agriculture varied with culture. With the Native Americans and the Ancient Chinese during 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. have both differences and similarities towards agricultural production. Document 1, tells of a story about how Maria Manuela de Cora (an Inca Author) passes along ancient legends. One that is called â€Å"Seeds† that says that one day the son of the sun kills a child that was made by the sun. The son of the sun got scared of the anger of his father and scattered about the world the pieces of his murdered brother. It tells that his body parts like his teeth grew corn. This would be a story about the creation of corn, why it was there and how. However, document 7 talks of an Ancient Chinese Legend. This talks more about that fact that if you took the weeds you could fertilize the farmer’s crops. With each story tells something to do with farming. How that one, thing is made or how to make their crops better. Document 5, is a diagram of a hunting scene and peasants working in a field in Ancient China. This illustration gave a reason for historians to track the development of tool- and weapon making in organization in agrarian and artisan production as well as the leisure activities of officials and the landed elites. With document 3 talks about Mesoamerican origins. Historians talk about that current archaeological evidence cannot pinpoint a single location where Indian agriculture began or determine precisely why the Indians became agriculturists. They did though have records that suggested that the cultivation and domestication of plants. With the painting and the records gave historians a better view of each hunting scene and peasants working in fields. During the period of 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. ancient civilizations in North and South America and China cultivated and gradually moved from the hunting and gathering lifestyles. These civilizations drifted towards food collection and then farming. With this approach, crops and attitudes toward agriculture varied with culture. With the Native Americans and the Ancient Chinese during 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. have both differences and similarities towards agricultural production. Showing that China was more into the facts then stories like Mesoamerica to explain the reasoning of agricultural in both of China and Native Americans.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Florida Everglades Essay -- Geology

THE EVERGLADES: RIVER OF GRASS The Everglades, also known as the River of Grass, is one of South Florida's most treasured areas. It is an area still full of wonder and mystery. The Everglades is lined with a specific type of limestone bedrock formed by tiny organisms called byrozoans. These animals, though not related to coral, act like coral by extracting dissolved limestone from the sea water around them and using it to construct protective chambers in which to live. They then attach to various kinds of sea grasses on the ocean floor and coat them as well. Individual chambers combine together to form rock-like structures. Over thousands of years, when South Florida was completely submerged, a vast amount of this limestone combined with other ocean sediments and was laid down over the area now covered by the Everglades. Prior to the draining activities of humans and its use as an agricultural area, the Everglades was flooded about nine to eleven months of the year. It also lost only about 0.03 inches of soil per year. After the drainage the Everglades began losing soil at approximately 1 inch per year. Now, however, it is only losing 0.56 inches per year. In the Everglades there are a variety of different animals and species that seem to be able to thrive in the same habitat. The truth is that due to elevation differences, and therefore differences in the water level, the Everglades is really an area of interconnecting, but different habitats. One of the more important habitat areas is actually created by one of the Everglades most famous inhabitants – the alligator. The alligators move in and out of holes (depressions) in the limestone described above. By doing this they keep this area lower than the rest ... ...restore natural lands. The federal, state, and local governments are joining forces to bring these pristine natural lands back to their original splendor and beauty. "The question of why we should protect the Everglades has now evolved into how we should restore the Everglades," according to Suzie Unger. "Everglades National Park is the largest remaining sub-tropical wilderness in the continental United States and has extensive fresh and saltwater areas, open Everglades prairies, and mangrove forests. Abundant wildlife includes rare and colorful birds, and this is the only place in the world where alligators and crocodiles exist side by side. The park is 1,506,539 acres (606,688 hectares) in size. It is a World Heritage Site, an International Biosphere Reserve, and a Wetland of International Significance," according to the following website: http://nps.gov/ever

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

King David- A short outline essay of his life Essay

â€Å"A man after God’s own heart† is what David is called in I Samuel 13:14. So, it is very helpful to discover that he is not sinless but a man of great passions and driven by great desires. He has a violent temper and is a vicious, cruel killer. However, when the Lord puts the finger on him, he is also completely repentant. He has the whole spectrum of emotions that you and I have, yet God calls him a â€Å"man after His own heart,† because, even though he fails God many times, he loves God wholeheartedly. David’s Rise: God Chooses David to be King- King Saul, though a talented king, had stopped obeying God early in his career, and had begun turning selfish and evil. So God told the prophet Samuel he would remove Saul from being king, and replace him with â€Å"a man after his own heart†. The Battle with Goliath- David approached Goliath on the run, sling in hand. His first shot penetrated the giant’s forehead, and he fell facedown, dead. Saul Turns on David- Saul threw his spear, and David narrowly dodged the spear. Fearing for his life, David finally decides he isn’t safe and left town that night. David in Exile- David wandered the wilderness, living in caves. Many other fugitives sought him out, and soon he had a community of 400 families in his care. David Spares King Saul- David passed up a chanced to kill Saul, out of respect for the LORD, and he displayed the hem of Saul’s robe as evidence. He furthermore promised he would never harm the king the LORD had chosen. King Saul Dies in Battle- Saul was mortally wounded, and fearing that hisenemies would capture and torture him, he takes his own life. David, King of Judah- under David’s powerful leadership, Judah grew stronger and stronger. Under Ishbosheth’s incompetence, Israel grew weaker and weaker. David, King of Israel- David’s military prowess became legendary. He converted many nearby nations from aggressors into subdued enemies. By the end of his life, his empire was so powerful that there was peace, and his son Solomon never had to fight a war. The Ark of the Covenant- Instead of carrying the Ark as prescribed; they followed the example of the Philistines, placing it on a cart. Then at one climactic moment, the oxen stumbled, the cart was upset, and the Ark was in danger of falling to the ground. One of the Levites, named Uzzah, reached out to steady the Ark, ignoring the prohibition against touching it. For this offense, the LORD instantly struck him dead. Preparations for the Temple -The LORD had different plans. He told Nathan to go back to David and tell him he was not the one to build a temple. Instead, after David’s death his son would be king in his place, and he would build the temple. David’s Decline: Scandal- David sends one of his commanders to die in battle after falling for his wife and getting her pregnant. Later this son dies and God continue to curse him by turning his family against him. Amnon’s Crime- The prince rapes his sister and King David handling of this crime shows his loss of good judgment since his own similar crime. Absalom’s Crime- Another one of David’s Sons and the full brother of Tamar, swears revenge and ends up having his brother killed and then becomes exiled to prevent his own death. Absalom’s Rebellion- Almost as soon as Absalom returned to Jerusalem, he began conspiring to overthrow his father King David and take his throne. Absalom died under Joab’s sword. Sheba’s Rebellion- One of the leaders in the bickering over the land left by king Absalom, a man named Sheba, declared himself king of Israel, exclusive of Judah. He raised an army, and civil war began once again. Adonijah’s Rebellion- When King David was old; he lost awareness of much that happened around him. God had chosen Solomon, and David had privately promised that Solomon would succeed him as king. But in his feeble condition he was losing control of his kingdom, and his ability to control who succeeded him was in doubt. At this moment David’s son Adonijah decided to make himself king. When Bathsheba, Solomon’s mother heard this she went to David and reminded him that God had chosen Solomon as the new king of Israel. David finally had a clear moment and made sure that Solomon took over the Kingdom. As Solomon took over as king he sent Adonijah home with the warning that if he ever showed the slightest sign of treason again, he would die. Later, Adonijah schemed to obtain one of now-dead David’s assistant girls for his wife. This seemed innocent enough, but it reminded Solomon vividly of similar schemes Adonijah’s brother Absalom had used in his treasonous bid for the throne. Solomon interpreted this as the first step in Adonijah’s renewed effort to overthrow Solomon, and ordered him put to death, along with some of the top people in Adonijah’s original conspiracy.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Genetically Vigorous Populations Essay - 1508 Words

Genetically Vigorous Populations Paper Megan Lade University of Phoenix (Online Campus) Niladri Sarker Introduction into Genetic Diversity Genetic diversity provides a species with its form and function. A species genotype refers to their genetic code; what their cells are going to be used for – hair cell, eye cell, muscle cell, etc. A species phonotype refers to the way in which that species gene will be expressed – blonde hair, blue eyes, large muscle tone; which significantly impacts the success of that individuals genes. Without genetic diversity among populations the gene pools would be very limited, which gives way to a rise in mutations and inevitably the end of a species. â€Å"Genes regulate body size, shape,†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"As biological novelties to the ecosystems, GM crops may potentially affect the fitness of other species, population dynamics, ecological roles, and interactions, promoting local extinctions, population explosions, and changes in community structure and function inside and outside agro-ecosystems† (Gertsberg, 2011). Population Management Population management is dependent upon the carrying capacity of a population. The carrying capacity of a population is described as the maximum population size of a species that the environment can sustain given all necessary items such as food, water and habitat are available. Genetic diversity is a key value when discussing population management as the more diverse a population is, the more resistant that species will be to environmental changes and disease. Over population, exceeding that population’s carrying capacity can cause starvation, loss of habitat and death. Controlling food sources and other natural resources can help control a population’s numbers; which further increases the opportunity for genetic diversity among healthy species. Another way to control invasive species, mostly plant species, is via controlled fires; alternatively the reintroduction of natural predators also controls populations. As with everything in life, we can h ave ‘too much’ – finding the happy medium in the points above is key to successful population management. 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